Infective Endocarditis Mnemonic For Easy Recall

infective endocarditis mnemonic

Have you been looking for mnemonic to remember Infective endocarditis?

Yesterday, I went for a mop-up clinical posting at the Cardiology unit. And our consultant diagnosed a patient with Biventricular heart failure and Infective endocarditis.

So today, I am going to review all about Infective endocarditis. You’d learn all about what it means, how to clerk such patients and things to check, and yes, an easy mnemonic to remember the signs and symptoms!

If you are ready for this, then let’s hop in immediately!

First of all, what is Infective Endocarditis?

What is Infective Endocarditis?

What comes to your mind anytime you hear –it is? Inflammation, right? Perfect answer!

So from the word endocardium and inflammation. You should already have a hint on what this disease means!

Infective endocarditis is a disease where the lining of the heart chamber and valves which is the endocardium is inflamed. It simply means a condition where the endocardium of a patient’s heart is inflamed.

This disease is caused by bacteria, fungi, or other microbial organisms that got into the bloodstream.

Causes of Infective endocarditis

Before we move over to the infective endocarditis mnemonic, let’s review what causes it. Here are some ways one can get this disease;

1.Bad Dental Hygiene

Your mouth can get infected with germs through different things that get into it. As a result, health experts advise brushing at least twice a day to keep your teeth clean and free from such germs.

However, poor dental hygiene can cause your gums to bleed during brushing. And when such happens, those germs can sip into your bloodstream and may go all the way to your heart and infect the endocardium causing infective endocarditis.

2. Contaminated instruments

For some patients who do self-medication, they may inject themselves with contaminated needles during drug intake. And when this happens, the blood can get infected through the needles and get into the heart causing infective endocarditis.

3. Infected Catheter

Catheterization is the process by which a medical specialist inserts a thin tube into the body of a patient in order to inject or drain fluid. However, when this tube is in position for a long time, it can get infected and cause infective endocarditis.

How do you clerk a patient with Infective endocarditis?

Obviously, your patient won’t have the term “infective endocarditis” written on their forehead. So how do you detect patients with such disease when they present to your clinic as a medical professional?

Here are symptoms to check for in a patient with Infective endocarditis.

  1. Fatigue
  2. Otopnea
  3. Pedal or abdominal swelling
  4. Joint and muscle aches
  5. Heart murmur
  6. Fever
  7. Chest pain on exertion
  8. Janeway lesions: this is described as inflamed spots on soles of the feet or palms
  9. Oslers nodes: Tender spots under the fingers or toes
  10. Red spots in the eyes or mouth

Infective Endocarditis Mnemonic

To remember Infective endocarditis symptoms, use the mnemonic: FROM JANE. Where;

  • F- Fever
  • R- Roth’s spots
  • O- Osler’s nodes
  • M- Murmurs of the heart
  • J- Janeway lesions
  • A- anaemia
  • N- Nail haemorrhage
  • E- Embolism

Duke’s Criteria for infective endocarditis and mnemonic

Making a diagnosis for Infective endocarditis may be difficult as a Doctor. But don’t worry! Duke’s criteria is here for you!

Duke criteria are a collection of features to check for a complete diagnosis for Infective endocarditis. It requires you to have one of the following before you can decide:

  • 2 major and 1 minor criterion or
  • 1 major and 3 minor criterion
  • 5 minor criterion

Major Criterion

1.Blood culture positive for infective endocarditis

When you get the test for the blood culture of the patient, if you find either of Staphylococcus Aureus, Viridans Streptococci, Staphylococcus Bovis, HACEK group, community acquired enterococci, then you should know the patient has infective endocarditis.

2. Endochardial involvement

When an echocardiograph is done on the patient, the presence of vegetation, absence or valve dehiscence signifies infective endocarditis. Also, an increase in murmur shows positive for the disease

Minor criteria for infective endocarditis mnemonic

3. Fever

4. Immunological events which include symptoms like Osler’s nodes, Rheumatoid factor, Roth spots.

5. Vascular lesions which include embolism, Janeway lesions, hemorrhage, Intracranial hemorrhage, conjunctival hemorrhage, septic infarcts.

6. Echocardiography

7. Predeposition: that is what is the heart condition or is the patient on IV drugs?

8. Microbiological findings

Following the Duke criteria, if you want to easily remember the symptoms and their order then use the mnemonic: BE FIVE PM. They are already arranged in the above.

Also Read: Glasgow Coma Scale Mnemonic for easy recall


CMDA Bi weekly Test for 024 2.0

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Category: Haematology

1. Primary Immune lymphoid organs Include

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Category: Haematology

2. Which of the following cells is involved in humoral Immune response

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Category: Haematology

3. Clinical antigens which prevent infectious disease include

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Category: Haematology

4. Secondary Immune lymphoid organs Include

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Category: Haematology

5. Which of the following will shift the oxygen dissociation curve to the RIGHT:

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Category: Haematology

6. Prothrombin time is elevated in deficiency of which of the following

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Category: Haematology

7. Vitamin K dependent coagulation factors does NOT include:

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Category: Haematology

8. The following factors feature along the common coagulation pathway EXCEPT:

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Category: Haematology

9. About haemopoietic stem cells

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Category: Haematology

10. Concerning leukemoid reaction

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Category: Haematology

11. Concerning iron deficiency

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Category: Haematology

12. Which of the following factors enhance iron absorption

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Category: Haematology

13. Anaemia of chronic disorders can be caused by the following EXCEPT:

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Category: Haematology

14. Haemoglobinopathies include:

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Category: Haematology

15. The definition of anaemia has nothing to do with:

16 / 40

Category: Haematology

16. Causes of absent spleen include:

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Category: Haematology

17. Causes of Massive Splenomegaly (>20cm) include the following EXCEPT:

18 / 40

Category: Haematology

18. Functions of the spleen include the following EXCEPT:

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Category: Haematology


The spleen consists of:

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Category: Haematology

20. The spleen is located in the

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Category: Haematology

21. In which of the membrane disorder is treatment not usually necessary?

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Category: Morbid Anatomy/Histopathology

22. Neurofibrillary tangle is seen in which of the following condition?

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Category: Morbid Anatomy/Histopathology


Which of the following is associated with intracellular accumulation

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Category: Morbid Anatomy/Histopathology

24. Concerning hemodynamic disorders

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Category: Morbid Anatomy/Histopathology

25. The following are not correct

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Category: Morbid Anatomy/Histopathology


The pathogenic mechanism of edema in congestive cardiac failure is

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Category: Morbid Anatomy/Histopathology

27. The following predisposes to thrombosis

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Category: Morbid Anatomy/Histopathology

28. The following are clinical features of shock except

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Category: Morbid Anatomy/Histopathology

29. Edema of

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Category: Morbid Anatomy/Histopathology

30. Which of the following is a permanent tissue

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Category: Morbid Anatomy/Histopathology

31. Concerning tissue classification based on their regenerative capacity

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Category: Morbid Anatomy/Histopathology

32. Concerning apoptosis

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Category: Morbid Anatomy/Histopathology

33. Concerning metaplasia

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Category: Morbid Anatomy/Histopathology

34. Concerning cellular adaption

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Category: Morbid Anatomy/Histopathology

35. Concerning hypertrophy which is not correct?

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Category: Morbid Anatomy/Histopathology


An investigation of the chest of a 55 year old man shows necrosis secondary to a thrombus in the medium-sized pulmonary artery. This is a form of?

37 / 40

Category: Morbid Anatomy/Histopathology

37. Which of the following predominates at the injury site at 24hrs of tissue damage?

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Category: Morbid Anatomy/Histopathology

38. The following is true except?

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Category: Morbid Anatomy/Histopathology

39. Which of the following plays the greatest role in arterial thrombosis?

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Category: Morbid Anatomy/Histopathology


The pathogenesis of shock in coarctation of aorta involves?

Your score is

The average score is 54%


Final words on Infective endocarditis

In this article, we have come to review all about the infective endocarditis disease as well as an easy mnemonic to remember them anytime! Now you can proceed and make a perfect diagnosis!

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Anaso Emmanuel
Anaso Emmanuel

My name is Anaso Emmanuel and I’m the founder of MedicsDomain; an SEO Expert, Content Writer and an Enthusiastic learner. To the outside world, I’m an ordinary Medic but secretly I use this blog to help aspirants get into medical school, provide insightful guides and connect with others like me.

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